It is said that in September 1945, when the Second World War was over, newspaper reporters wanted to know the reaction of Shankaracharya Swami Brahmananda Saraswati, Shankaracharya of Jyotirmath (Guru Dev). The Hindi text of this discourse is included in a 1947 publication, 'Shri Shankaracharya Vaksudha', of which a transcript is included at foot of webpage, Here is a translation into English:-


'In truth then victory is really this; for the one who has no risk of inner defeat. In truth, by the suppression only of outer (usual) enemies no one can become permanently victorious; because from those enemies there is no lasting suppression. True knowledge of victory occurs then from obtaining control over internal enemies. Really, only by the permanent subjugation of internal enemies is the subjugation of the external enemy achieved; because the inner enemy gives rise to the creation of the external enemies.

The internal enemies are kaama (lust), krodha (anger), lobha (greed), moha (delusion), mada (intoxification) and maatsarya (jealousy). This is really the shhaDarivarga, the group of six inner enemies which create any external enemies of the world; therefore if you wish to experience happiness and peace one must gain victory over all one's gross enemies, then you should cut off the place of birth of the six subtle enemies, kaama (lust), krodha (anger), lobha (greed), moha (delusion), mada (intoxification) and maatsarya (jealousy). Without gaining victory over the shhaDarivarga (group of six enemies) then you cannot completely irradicate the external enemies. This is fixed.

This is the proven experience of those who have gained victory over these internal subtle enemies, that if the birthplace of the external enemies becomes destroyed and all enemies have become eradicated then afterwards no enemies remain and in truth this is considered to be a real victory. For him the true and lasting store-house of happiness and peace is opened.

To be completely free from enemies, that country should be wholely settled in happiness and peace, and for that it is required that the creator of that region or the leader has gained victory over the aantarika shhaDarivarga (the group of six inner enemies), otherwise this is what really occurs that; 'of one's own accord one's life is destroyed' and 'of one's own accord one is choked'. The past history of many hundreds of years is a witness to this statement, that the chief leaders of the new countries did, by their own inner kaama (lust), krodha (anger), lobha (greed), moha (delusion), etc, instigate the colouring of the earth blood red, many times. This is brutish. On whom the burden of running a kingdom befalls, he should acquire the special charactaristic of powerful insight. To have trust in a gust of agitation of the emotions, of kaama (lust), krodha (anger), lobha (greed), moha (delusion), etc, is not a great wish or humane to the whole world.

Up to what extent can we suppress our outer enemies? We subdue one but are intimidated by another, this then is the suppression of an enemy but there is no sign of triumph. Whilst victory over the internal enemies is not obtained then this will remain the condition. Therefore, this much is necessary, that the leader of a country obtains triumph over his own inner aantarika shhaDarivarga (group of six inner enemies). Thus if the leader of society is really victorious, then they can successfully demonstrate the path of lasting happiness and peace for the country and the whole world.

It is not very difficult to obtain triumph over kaama (lust), krodha (anger) etc. But without understanding, people are habituated to presuming it is out of their reach. Mostly people have become resolved that only a mahaatmaa (a great soul) on the nivR^itti maargii (the path of renunciation) can attain triumph over the shhaDarivarga (six enemies); but this determination is really based in ignorance. The basis of the nivR^itti maargii (path of renunciation) then is giving up and severing all connections with the root cause of kaama (lust), krodha (anger) etc. So for him there is no question arising of victory or defeating anybody. It is assumed that a victor over the shhaDarivarga then is he who can engage continually in vyavahaara (daily business, employment etc.); but that on him desire and anger cannot accumulate and gain monopoly. So the enemy can constantly have the opportunity to make an attack; but that power to attack will not be strong enough; for this reason then he (the enemy) will surrender, as he is flawed and defeated. The continuous flow of daily business is no trouble in getting victory over shhaDarivarga (the six enemies).

The birthplace of all enemies of saMsaara (mundane existence) is the collecton of subtle enemies. The willingness for obtaining a victory by awakening physical preparation for battle and making the  period of disquiet of life and death, is not necessary. For this only it is only necessary to become dispassionate and act with stong discernment.

One who is a samadarshii (one who is impartial, dispassionate) is one who is said to see very well - he who sees a thing for what it really is is said to be samadarshii. In the real form of a thing and in seeing it he makes no distinction, he is in a complete inner stae of harmony and remains fit. In his vision the perception of a thing is correct, that is to say there is no confusion. If saMsaara (mundane existence) is delusory then there is no change in the truth of that; and if the absolute is truth then he really accepts the truth. The falsehood of saMsaara (transitory existence) and the permanence of the aatmaa (soul) - when a man becomes strong then he becomes samadarshii (impartial, dispassionate). And, then he sees all things in their real form.

The meaning of the falsehood of saMsaara is this, that the nature is to change, become reversed, and to perish in an instant. No more learning is necessary for anybody to understand this - all are experiencing this, that everything in saMsaara is transient, has a tragic end - subtlest of the subtlest and grossest of the gross things are changed. This is apparent to every individual life that in front of us. How many individuals are born? How many are being destroyed? All this speech is not original and one day I also will no longer remain. If saMsaara is broken in an instant then it is not necessary to make a great effort to undestand this. Man is experiencing this day and night; but then again he is not considering it.

He who has once given careful thought to the perishability of saMsaara, in his own heart, he gains victory of the aantarika shhaDarivarga (the group of six internal enemies); because to that man, all the material world is instantly destructible, so that he cannot have lobha (greed) or moha (delusion) for anything; because he knows that what he has lobha (greed) and moha (delusion) for today, tomorrow is automatically changed; therefore lobha (greed) and moha (delusion) are to no purpose, in effect they are really connected to remorse and anxiety; therefore lobha (greed) and moha (delusion) are not to be grown in the inner self. The very seeds of these become destroyed and if there are no seeds of lobha (greed) and moha (delusion) then maatsarya (jealousy) also becomes destroyed. He is also without matsara (wrath). No jealousy of worldly glory and wealth remain, no arrogance or jealousy, then in him anger becomes perfectly destroyed. Thus man's narrow wishes become attached to those of God's, and with dutiful mind all business is accomplished. His behaviour is very naturally disciplined and in his worldly life he is like a lotus leaf, detached and pure. Thus by such dispassionate natural activity man is really triumphant over the shhaDarivarga (the six enemies) - In this way there are no outer enemies of man - he governs over all of nature alike - moreover, none becomes capable of destroying the reign of peace. So really the samadarshii (the impartial, dispassionate one) is the great conqueror, he can remain exhibiting the fruit of happiness and peace.

Let that be! Triumph over the aantarika shhaDarivarga (group of six internal enemies), that is the best and true victory, and for this great victory man should incline his efforts.'

 translation - Paul Mason © 2009


There is another (anonymous) translation of this discourse available, one which is somewhat less literal:-

'Real victory is that, after which there can never be a reverse. Nobody can call himself a victor forever merely by crushing an external foe, because such foes can spring up again. A real victory is achieved by bringing under control the internal foes. A check over the internal enemies is therefore the only way of conquering the external enemies forever, because we should bear in mind that it is our own internal enemies which create the external enemies.

These inner enemies are ambition, anger, greed, false attachment, vanity and jealousy. It is this hexagon sitting inside us which makes a cat's paw (duping) of anything in the outer world in order to create enemies for us. Therefore if anybody wants to enjoy peace and happiness through victory over all enemies, then he should raid the very source of all physical enemies - the subtle hexagon living in us. Destruction of enemies by root is not possible without breaking up this hexagon (ambition, anger, greed, false attachment, vanity and jealousy). This is axiomatic.

It is a fact established by practical experience that anyone who has conquered these subtle inner enemies, has broken up the central source of all external enemies. Therefore, all enemies are nipped in the bud. Then he has no enemies left to be defeated. It is only such a victor who can be called a real victor. Then the gates of true and lasting peace and happiness are opened for him.

For a nation which desires to be completely free from enemies and to build a world of peace and happiness, it is necessary to have such men at the helm of its affairs who have conquered their inner hexagon. Otherwise they would destroy themselves along with many others. The history of the last several centuries shows that the rulers of powerful nations have given a bloodbath to the world under the influence of their hexagon. This is brutish. Those who carry the burden of guiding a nation should particularly act with insight. It is no greatness or humanism to be carried away by one's hexagon and spread a wave of suffering over the earth.

After all, how long can we go on destroying the external enemies? As soon as we get rid of one, another one is ready to engage us. In this way we not only remain ourselves perpetually disturbed, but we also keep a cold war going on which threatens the peace and happiness of the whole of mankind all the time. This is certainly neither a sign of any victory nor of the suppression of any enemies. Hence it is most essential that people who rule nations should be those who have conquered their inner hexagon. It is these really victorious leaders who can successfully guide the societies, the nations and the world on to the path of lasting peace and happiness.

It is not too difficult to win over the hexagon. But people take it to be impossible without giving thought. Most of them hold the belief that only a perfect saint who has renounced all worldly concerns can break up the inner hexagon. This belief is based on complete ignorance. A renouncer renounces the very cause of the hexagon, so in his case the question of conquering the hexagon does not arise at all. A victor over the hexagon is one who maintains his worldly attitudes but does not allow himself to be subordinated by them. Let the enemy have an occasion to strike, but let him find that he cannot do so because he finds you too strong for it. Only then can he be treated as defeated. Mere engagement in bona fide worldly activities is no hindrance in keeping the inner hexagon in a state of subjugation.

For liquidisation of the subtle cell of inner enemies, it is not necessary to make warlike preparations over a number of years and then start a slaughter which keeps the world hanging between life and death. The only thing necessary for this is to become unbiased and to act with imagination.

To be unbiased is to look correctly. A person who sees things as they are is called an unbiased person. There is no difference between what a thing is and how he sees it. His outlook is completely balanced. His appreciation of a thing is correct - in other words, he never misunderstands. If the world is unreal, he does not give it any reality. If Brahman is real, he takes it as real. When one is convinced of the unreality of the world and the perpetuity of the Atman, then he becomes unbiased. Then he sees things in their true shape.

By saying that the world is unreal, we mean that it can exist as it looks only for the time being, and that it would look something different hereafter. Everybody is actually seeing that everything in the world perishes and that we shall have to miss it one day - the smallest and the biggest - all are destined to change. Everyone sees clearly how many go on being born and how many go on dying constantly before our eyes. This is what we call the transitoriness of the world. We see all this going on but we do not think over it.

One who has set in his heart the concept of the transitoriness of the world through a process of reasoning and deep thought, is the person competent to win over the inner hexagon. Because, one who is convinced of the transitoriness of the entire world complex cannot be susceptible to greed or attachment to anything, for he knows that the object of his greed or attachment today will be something different tomorrow. Conscious of this disappointment, desires and attachments do not germinate in his mind. Nay, their very seed is destroyed. Then jealousy also is gone. He is no longer vain about his greatness, learning or wealth. When greed, attachment, vanity and jealousy disappear, there is no cause left for anger and anger goes away automatically. His desires recede and turn to God, with the result that now his worldly actions are dictated by a sense of duty rather than by passion. His behaviour automatically becomes proper and he lives in the world without being affected by it, just as a lotus leaf lives in water without getting wet. Such a man has no external enemies left, and his sameness rules over the whole Nature. None is capable of disturbing his kingdom of peace. It is such a person who is "samadarshii" (impartial, dispassionate) and a great victor, who can carry the world towards the goal of lasting peace and happiness.

Therefore, a victory over the inner hexagon is the highest form of victory, and it is to achieving this great victory that man should direct his efforts.'

वास्तविक विजय

[ सन् १९४५ के सितम्बर मास में जिस समय हिटलर को परास्त कर धुरी - राष्ट्रों पर विजय प्राप्त करके मित्रराष्ठ्र विजय को ख़ुशियाँ मना रहे थे और साथ - ही - साथ गुप्त रूप से आपस में एक दूसरे से शंकित रहकर उनकी युद्ध को तैयार्याँ बराबर जारी थीं , समस्त विजयी राष्ट्रों के गण्यमान्य व्यक्ति विजय पर प्रसन्नता - पूर्वक अपने मत प्रदर्शित कर रहे थे और समाचार - पत्रों में विजय पर लेख - माला‍ओं का बाहुल्य था , ऐसे समय में पत्रकारों की विशेष प्रार्थना पर पूज्यपाद श्रीमज्जगद्गुरु महाराज ने निम्न - लिखित पवित्रादेश का प्रकाशन कर सभ्य संसार को नवीन प्रकाश प्रदान किया।

इस उपदेश में भौतिक विजय का अस्थायत्व - निरूपण एवं स्थायी विजय के लि‍ए पथ - प्रकाशन होकर  वास्तविक विजय  का रह्स्योद्घाटन हु‍आ है।]

विजय तो वास्तव में वही है जिसके अनन्तर पराजय की शङ्का न हो। बाह्य ( व्यावहारिक ) शत्रु‍ओं का दमन करने से वास्तव में को‍ई स्थायी विजयी नहीं हो सकता ; क्योंकि उससे शत्रु‍ओं का स्थायी दमन नहीं होता। यथार्थ विजय तो आन्तरिक शत्रु‍ओं पर अधिकार पाने से होती है। आन्तरिक - शत्रु - निग्रह ही स्थायी रूप से बाह्य शत्रु - दमन का एक - मात्र उपाय है ; क्योंकि आन्तरिक शत्रु ही बाह्य शत्रु‍ओं का उत्पादन करते हैं।

अन्तरिक शत्रु हैं - काम , क्रोध , लोभ , मोह , मद और मात्सर्य। यही प्रान्तरिक षडरिवर्ग बाह्य जगत म किसीको निमित्त बनाकर शत्रु बना लेते हैं ; इसिलि‍ए यदि को‍ई अपने समस्त शत्रु‍ओं पर विजय पाकर सुख - शान्ति का अनुभव करना चाहता है तो उसे चाहि‍ए कि अपने समस्त बाह्य ( स्थूल ) शत्रु‍ओं का उद्गम - स्थान - काम , क्रोध , लोभ , मोह , मद , मात्सर्य ( इन छः सूक्ष्म शत्रु‍ओं ) - का छेदन करे। बिना इस षडरिवर्ग पर विजय जाये बाह्य शत्रु‍ओं का समूलोच्छेद नहीं हो सकता - यह ध्रुव है।

यह अनुभव - सिद्ध है कि जिसने इन सूक्ष्म आन्तरिक शत्रु‍ओं पर विजय प्राप्त कर ली उसके बाह्य शत्रु‍ओं का उद्गम - केन्द्र विनष्ट हो जाता है और उसके समस्त शत्रु‍ओं का समूलोच्छेद हो जाता है। फिर उसका को‍ई शत्रु नहीं रह जाता और वही वास्तव में सच्चा विजयी माना जाता है। उसीके लि‍ए सच्चे स्थायी सुख - शान्ति का भाण्डार खुल जाता।

जो राष्ट्र शत्रु‍ओं से सर्वथा मुक्त होकर विश्व में सुख - शान्ति स्थापित करना चाहता है उसके लि‍ए यह आवश्यक है कि उसके राष्ट्र - निर्माता अथवा कर्णधार अपने आन्तरिक षडरिवर्ग पर विजय प्राप्त किये हु‍ए हों , अन्यथा यही चरितार्थ होता है कि -  स्वयं नष्टः परान्नाशयति  एवं ' स्वयं ब्रष्टः परान्भ्रंशयति '। पिछली क‍ई शताब्दियों का विश्व - इतिहास इस बात का साक्षी है कि प्रवल राष्ट्रों के सूत्रधारों ने अपने आन्तरिक काम , क्रोध , लोभ , मोह , आदि से प्रेरित होकर अनेकों बार पृथ्वी को रक्तरञ्जित किया है। यह पाशविकता है। जिनपर राष्ट्र - संचालन का भार हो उन्हें विशेष रूप से विचार - शक्ति से काम लेना चाहि‍ए। अपने काम , क्रोध , लोभ , मोह , आदि भावों के आवेश में बहकर समस्त संसार को त्रस्त करना महत्त्वाकांक्षा और मानवता नहीं है।

बाह्य शत्रु‍ओं का दमन कहाँ तक किया जा सकता है ? एक को दमन करके दूसरे से शङ्कित रखना , यह तो शत्रु - दमन एवं विजय का को‍ई लक्षण नहीं है। और , जब तक आन्तरिक शत्रु‍ओं पर विजय प्राप्त न की जायगी तब तक वही हाल रहेगा। इसलि‍ए यह अत्यन्त आवश्यक है कि राष्ट्र के कर्णधार अपने आन्तरिक षडरिवर्ग पर विजय प्राप्त किये हु‍ए हों। ऐसे यथार्थ विजयी सूत्रधार ही समाज , राष्ट्र एवं विश्व की स्थायी सुख - शान्ति का पथ - प्रदर्शन सफलता - पूर्वक कर सकते हैं।

काम , क्रोधादिकों पर विजय पाना अत्यन्त कठिन नहीं है। बिना समझे ही लोग इसे असाध्य मान बैठते हैं। बहुधा लोगों की यह धारणा हो ग‍ई है कि निवृत्ति - मार्गावलम्बी महात्मा ही षडरिवर्ग पर विजय पा सकते हैं ; किन्तु यह धारणा केवल अज्ञान - मूलक ही है। निवृत्ति - मार्गी तो काम , क्रोधादिकों के मूल कारण ( सांसारिक व्यवहार ) को ही तिलाञ्जलि दे देता है। उसके लि‍ए तो इनपर विजय और पराजय का को‍ई प्रश्न ही नहीं उठता। षडरिवर्ग पर विजयी तो वही माना जा सकता है जो व्यवहार में बराबर प्रवृत्त रहे ; पर काम - क्रोधादि उसपर अपना स्वत्व न जमा सकें। शत्रु को आघात कर सकने का अवसर सदा प्राप्त रहे ; किन्तु वह असमर्थतावश आघात न कर सके ; तभी तो माना जायगा कि वह दवा हु‍आ है और पराजित है। व्यवहार में प्रवृत्ति ( शास्त्रोक्त प्रवृत्ति ) षडरिवर्ग पर विजय पाने में बाधक नहीं होती।

संसार के समस्त शत्रु‍ओं का उद्गम - केन्द्र , सूक्ष्म - शत्रु - पुञ्ज , पर विजय पाने के लि‍ए वशों की भौतिक तैयारी करके रण - चण्डी को जागृत करने और संसार को जीवन - मरण के बीच अशान्त बनाये रखने की आवश्यकता नहीं है ; इसके लि‍ए केवल विचार - शक्ति से ही काम लेकर समदर्शी हो जाने की आवश्यकता है।

समदर्शी उसे कहते हैं जो ठीक - ठीक देखता है - जो वस्तु जैसी है उसे वैसी ही देखनेवाला समदर्शी कहलाता है - वस्तु के स्वरूप में और उसकी दृष्टि में भेद नहीं आने पाता , सर्वथा समत्व या सामञ्जस्य रहता है। उसकी दृष्टि में पदार्थ का यथार्थ अनुभव होता है , अर्थात् उसे भ्रम नहीं होने पाता। संसार मिथ्या है तो वह उसमें सत्य का आरोप नहीं करता ; ब्रह्म सत्य है तो वह उसे ही सत्य मानता है। संसार का मिथ्यात्व और आत्मा का नित्यत्व जब मनुष्य को पुष्ट हो जाता है तब वह समदर्शी हो जाता है। और , तब वह समस्त पदार्थों को उनके वास्तविक स्वरूप में देखता है।

संसार के मिथ्यात्व का अर्थ है - परिवर्तनशील होने के कारण उसकी क्षण - भंगुरता। इसको समझने के लि‍ए को‍ई अधिक पाण्डित्य की आवश्यकता नहीं है - सभीको प्रत्यक्ष अनुभव हो रहा है कि संसार का प्रत्येक पदार्थ नश्वर है , वियोगान्त है - सूक्ष्म - से - सूक्ष्म और स्थूल - से - स्थूल सभी वस्तु‍एं परिवर्तन - शील हैं। प्रत्येक जीव प्रत्यक्ष देखता है कि उसके सामने कितने ही जीव उत्पन्न होकर नष्ट होते रहते हैं। सभीको यह वदित है कि मेरे पूर्वज नहीं रहे और एक दिन मैं भी नहीं रहूँगा। यदि तो संसार की क्षण - भंगुरता है। इसे समझने के लि‍ए बहुत प्रयास की आवश्यकता नहीं है। मनुष्य इसे प्रत्यक्ष अहर्निश अनुभव कर रहा है ; परन्तु फिर भी विचार नहीं करता।

जिसने एक बार सतर्क होकर अच्छी तरह मनन करके विचार - पूर्वक संसार की क्षण - भंगुरता अपने हृदय में पुष्ट कर ली , वही आन्तरिक षडरिवर्ग पर विजय प्राप्त कर लेता है ; क्योंकि जिस मनुष्य को समस्त लौकिक प्रपञ्च की क्षण - भंगुरता पुष्ट हो ग‍ई है उसे किसी वस्तु से लोभ और मोह नहीं हो सकता ; क्योंकि वह जानता है कि जिसका लोभ और मोह आज करेंगे कल उसका स्वयं परिवर्तन हो जाना है ; इसलि‍ए व्यर्थ लोभ - मोह करके उसके परिणाम में पश्चात्ताप और अशान्ति ही हाथ लगेगी ; इसलि‍ए उसके अंतःकरण में लोभ और मोह अंकुरित ही नहीं होते। इनका बीज ही नष्ट हो जाता है और लोभ - मोह निर्बीज हो जाने से मात्सर्य भी निर्मूल हो जाता है। वह किसीसे मत्सर भी नहीं करता। किसी लौकिक वैभव , धन , मद और मत्सर न रहने से उसमें क्रोध स्वभावतः निर्मूल हो जाता है। ऐसे मनुष्य की कामना‍एँ संकुचित होकर भगवत्परायण हो जाती हैं और वह कर्त्तव्य - बुद्धि से ही समस्त व्यवहार सम्पादन करता है। उसका व्यवहार स्वाभाविक ही शास्त्रोक्त होता है और उसका जीवन संसार में कमल - पत्र की भाँति असंग और निर्मल रहता है। ऐसा समदर्शी क्रियाशील मनुष्य ही षडरिवर्ग पर विजयी माना जाता है - ऐसे मनुष्य के बाह्य शत्रु रह ही नहीं जाते - समस्त प्रकृति पर उसकी एकरसता शासन करती है - उसके शान्ति - साम्राज्य को भंग करने में को‍ई भी समर्थ नहीं हो सकता। ऐसा ही समदर्शी महान् विजेता विश्व की स्थायी सुख - शांति का सफल पथ - प्रदर्शक हो सकता है।

अस्तु ! आन्तरिक षडरिवर्ग पर विजय पाना ही परमोत्कृष्ट वास्तविक विजय है , और इसी महा - विजय के लि‍ए मनुष्य को प्रयत्नशील होना चाहि‍ए।

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